Niebla is a small seaside resort where the Valdivia River flows into the Corral Bay and the Pacific Ocean, less than 15 kilometers west of Valdivia. Taken normally as a gateway into Valdivia, the small size of the town belies its historical importance. First visited by Spaniards in 1544, the river next to Niebla was named in honor of the conquistador and governor of Chile, Pedro de Valdivia -who would in 1552 found the city which bears his name. Valdivia was the port of entry into Chile after taking the Magellan Strait or rounding Cape Horn and had to be fortified against pirate attacks. The “Castillo de la Pura y Limpia Concepción de Monfort de Lemus” was built into Niebla’s rocky coastline between 1671 and 1679 and was one of the four important Corral Bay fortifications protecting the entrance of the bay and river. Valdivia’s designation as “The Key to the South Pacific” (meaning that he who holds Valdivia controls the navigation of the Pacific) explains why these fortifications, which eventually would number 17, would be so important in the 17th century. When Darwin visited in 1835, he only saw ruins. Niebla’s fort was declared a “Historic Monument” in 1950. Partly restored with Spanish help in 1992 to commemorate the V Centennial, the site was further restored in 2013-14 and now is on the tentative World Heritage list as an exceptional sample of the Hispanic-American school on fortifications and as part of the southernmost such system in America.