Matarani is located on the south-western coast of Peru and gives access to the colonial city of Arequipa, 75 miles (121 km) inland. From here it is a 200 mile (322 km) drive to Lake Titicaca and 400 miles (644 km) to Cuzco and Machu Picchu. This major port is an important element in the current plan between the governments of Peru and Brazil to afford easy commercial movement between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans by both countries. Matarani is the gateway to Arequipa, where you discover its very interesting prehistory that spanned over 10,000 years, ending with the arrival of the Spanish in the 1530s. Arequipa is rich with not only Inca archaeology, but also various pre-Inca cultures, and even earlier nomadic hunter-gatherers. Arequipa is also known as the 'Ciudad Blanca' (White City) for the numerous and magnificent constructions of temples, convents, big houses and palaces sculpted in white ashlar. It also possesses an excellent climate with almost 300 days of sun a year, with transparent blue sky.